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Initially, consensus protocols using Proof of Stake for sybil resistance faced several technical problems that needed to be addressed in order to provide sufficient security properties in a trustless environment. Among the most important we have: The nothing at stake problem Long range attacks The need for a decentralised and robust source of randomness ...


8

Ouroboros family implementations Classic implemented in 2017 BFT implemented Praos is currently running Genesis development's in progress... Hydra development's in progress... Crypsinous development’s in progress... Chronos development’s in progress... Omega brings together Classic, Praos, Genesis, Redux, Chronos, etc... ...


3

Having an internal clock greatly reduces the overhead for block propagation, as it would allow for a more forward, almost "UDP"-like, block stream. Nodes are then able to order blocks locally, rather than having to wait for sequential sharing of blocks. The Ouroboros Chronos paper was submitted in July of 2019. https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/838.pdf ...


3

Here is a link to the original Ouroboros paper from 2016: https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf If you scroll to section 8.1, input endorsers (IE) are discussed and generalized in close proximity to block producers (BP). Both are stakeholder entities in that the power to go about their tasks is constrained by the amount of stake delegated to them. We are ...


3

Here's a five-minute video by Andrew Westberg talking about just this. In short, the steps are as follows: A signed transaction is submitted to the mempool of the local cardano-node. mempools are constantly being synced between the nodes' peers A stake pool makes a new block by taking all the transactions in their mempool and appending it to the tip of ...


3

The network protocol functions depend only on the propagation time of blocks with its peers. The physical location of the block producing node have an effect on the propagation delay. Likely propagation delay based on round trip time with locations mentioned in the questions are Moon - 3000ms Mars - 40 minutes. Jupiter - 1 Hour and 50 minutes. The ...


2

Great question! Ada is given as a reward to those nodes that dutifully complete their job as slot leaders. Two epochs in advance, slot leaders are selected for a given epoch. The probability that a given stake pool will be selected is related to that pool's stake minus the difference between 1 and f, where f is a value determined by how good that node's ...


2

Here are three great videos on Ouroboros and Ouroboros Genesis that go into detail. They all give high-level dive into The Base Protocol and some of its upgrades. Basically, they use game theory and math-based models on ensuring that honest SPOs flourish while dishonest ones have no incentive to be so. When it comes to delegating on Cardano, A non-custodial ...


2

In Cardano, you cannot lose your stake. Instead, bad behavior is disincentivized by opportunity costs: if you misbehave (or if your delegated pool does), you will get lower rewards or none at all. It's better as it makes staking more secure from the viewpoint of the user, as the worst thing that could happen is that you get no reward.


2

That is not correct! The ledger specifications are licensed under Apache License 2.0 and the paper is also open to public.


2

According to Wikipedia a Formal Verification is: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics. Thus, the principles on which the operation of ...


2

Protocol parameters do not require a hard fork. They require a governance model to submit an update proposal that changes the parameters, but they do not increase the protocol version like era transitions. All existing nodes will get the new protocol parameters at the epoch boundary the update proposal takes effect. In the future, there could be some ...


2

If you compare the proof of stake concept to that of proof of work, you still end up with the "more money you have the more blocks you get." The difference being POW you buy graphics cards versus buying Cardano for POS. Parameter k is an important factor for decentralization in Cardano. Currently k is set to 500 which sets the cap of a saturated ...


2

In classic PoS there was a block "drift" consensus element that was needed to help properly order blocks. A block-chain can be viewed as a set of sequential time-stamps moving from the past to the future, but if the nodes making the blocks dont have synchronized clocks time stamps can be out of order. Block "a" being at time "t" ...


1

Here's a very good article about slot battles, but in short, prop time is not a factor in winning or losing... https://www.beaver-stake-pool.net/post/slot-battles-height-battles-and-orphaned-blocks


1

High net-worth individuals running multiple stake pools is not necessarily a problem, as long as: the initial distribution of ADA is sufficiently decentralized (done) the aforementioned individuals' share of ADA is not growing at an exponential rate (done) The market is still young, in that the big BIG money hasn't entered yet. During times of high ...


1

After asking the great community in the Cardano Forum someone answered comprehensively and pointed me to a blog post with an abstract, a video and a link to the paper.


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Input endorsers are originally discussed in the Ouroboros paper and could be potentially be used to create specific high-throughput layer 1 Ouroboros variants. To get the idea, check out this part of the paper: Input endorsers, stakeholder delegates, anonymous communication. In the final stage of our design, we augment the protocol with two new roles for ...


1

Short Answer: No there is not any technical limitations from the protocol or topology updater preventing you from doing this. Considerations: Starting external and working in, we need to consider the DNS vs Public IP side of this. In my opinion a Public IP should be avoided because if it changes, you have to resubmit your stake-pool registration. Excluding a ...


1

I think it's too early to talk about security and efficiency of Solana's Proof-of-History consensus (it creates a historical record that proves that an event has occurred at a specific moment in time) which works with Proof-of-Stake mechanism and its additional layers (protocols) but some obvious things are written in a White Paper. Here's an excerpt from ...


1

Casper vs Praos Casper protocol with its 33% fault tolerance is rather an economic finality type, than probabilistic one. It guarantees that at least 2/3 of validators sign some messages and the network verifies these messages. So it maintains the balance between finality time and decentralization. With a lack of official IOHK documentation, I came to my own ...


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