12 votes

How secure is Ouroboros Proof of Stake compared to Bitcoin Proof of Work?

Initially, consensus protocols using Proof of Stake for sybil resistance faced several technical problems that needed to be addressed in order to provide sufficient security properties in a trustless ...
  • 746
8 votes
Accepted

Ouroboros – Which version is currently implemented?

Updated: July 26th, 2022. Ouroboros family implementations Classic implemented in 2017 BFT implemented Praos is currently running Genesis development's in progress... Hydra ...
  • 1,667
4 votes
Accepted

How does Ouroboros disincentivize bad behavior?

Here are three great videos on Ouroboros and Ouroboros Genesis that go into detail. They all give high-level dive into The Base Protocol and some of its upgrades. Basically, they use game theory and ...
4 votes

What are input endorsers and how do they make Cardano more scalable?

Here is a link to the original Ouroboros paper from 2016: https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf If you scroll to section 8.1, input endorsers (IE) are discussed and generalized in close proximity to ...
  • 3,254
3 votes
Accepted

What are the steps in producing a block in Cardano?

Here's a five-minute video by Andrew Westberg talking about just this. In short, the steps are as follows: A signed transaction is submitted to the mempool of the local cardano-node. mempools are ...
  • 3,254
3 votes

Why Ouroboros Chronos and Proof-of-History need synchronization of time?

Having an internal clock greatly reduces the overhead for block propagation, as it would allow for a more forward, almost "UDP"-like, block stream. Nodes are then able to order blocks ...
  • 3,254
3 votes

How does Ouroboros disincentivize bad behavior?

Great question! Ada is given as a reward to those nodes that dutifully complete their job as slot leaders. Two epochs in advance, slot leaders are selected for a given epoch. The probability that a ...
3 votes

How does Ouroboros disincentivize bad behavior?

In Cardano, you cannot lose your stake. Instead, bad behavior is disincentivized by opportunity costs: if you misbehave (or if your delegated pool does), you will get lower rewards or none at all. It'...
  • 701
3 votes
Accepted

Will Ouroborous work if a nontrivial portion of validators are on the moon?

The network protocol functions depend only on the propagation time of blocks with its peers. The physical location of the block producing node have an effect on the propagation delay. Likely ...
  • 1,824
2 votes
Accepted

Is the Ouroboros Praos protocol proprietary?

That is not correct! The ledger specifications are licensed under Apache License 2.0 and the paper is also open to public.
2 votes

Difference between Ouroboros' Proof of Stake and Solana's Proof of History

I think it's too early to talk about security and efficiency of Solana's Proof-of-History consensus (it creates a historical record that proves that an event has occurred at a specific moment in time) ...
  • 1,667
2 votes
Accepted

What does it mean that Ouroboros is formally verified?

According to Wikipedia a Formal Verification is: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms ...
  • 1,667
2 votes

Will the variables of the gas calculation formula be able to be dynamically adjusted by the protocol on Cardano?

Protocol parameters do not require a hard fork. They require a governance model to submit an update proposal that changes the parameters, but they do not increase the protocol version like era ...
2 votes
Accepted

What are input endorsers and how do they make Cardano more scalable?

The core idea of input endorsers is to separate transaction selection from block production. The Ouroboros protocol - just like it randomly selects block producers according to their staked Ada - ...
  • 171
2 votes

Are there papers (e.g. game theorie based) on how Ouroboros encourages decentralization of ADA among its users?

If you compare the proof of stake concept to that of proof of work, you still end up with the "more money you have the more blocks you get." The difference being POW you buy graphics cards ...
2 votes

Why Ouroboros Chronos and Proof-of-History need synchronization of time?

In classic PoS there was a block "drift" consensus element that was needed to help properly order blocks. A block-chain can be viewed as a set of sequential time-stamps moving from the past ...
2 votes

Different versions of Ouroboros consensus protocol

Here is a recent blog post by IOHK explaining the different "flavors" of Ouroboros. Regarding your question/comments - there wasn't anything "wrong" with the Ouroboros-BFT (OBFT) ...
  • 3,254
1 vote

Is a block winning a height battle with a 43 second prop time a potential form of MEV?

Here's a very good article about slot battles, but in short, prop time is not a factor in winning or losing... https://www.beaver-stake-pool.net/post/slot-battles-height-battles-and-orphaned-blocks
1 vote

Are there papers (e.g. game theorie based) on how Ouroboros encourages decentralization of ADA among its users?

High net-worth individuals running multiple stake pools is not necessarily a problem, as long as: the initial distribution of ADA is sufficiently decentralized (done) the aforementioned individuals' ...
  • 3,254
1 vote
Accepted

Are there papers (e.g. game theorie based) on how Ouroboros encourages decentralization of ADA among its users?

After asking the great community in the Cardano Forum someone answered comprehensively and pointed me to a blog post with an abstract, a video and a link to the paper.
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1 vote

What are input endorsers and how do they make Cardano more scalable?

Input endorsers are originally discussed in the Ouroboros paper and could be potentially be used to create specific high-throughput layer 1 Ouroboros variants. To get the idea, check out this part of ...
1 vote
Accepted

Highly-available relay node (round robin & Ouroboros)

Short Answer: No there is not any technical limitations from the protocol or topology updater preventing you from doing this. Considerations: Starting external and working in, we need to consider the ...
1 vote

Validating transactions

Every block contains enough information to validate that a.) The pool that produced the block was allowed to produce the block in that slot. The header contains a proof and hash of the pool's vrf keys ...
1 vote

Can someone who is familiar with Ouroboros explain its fault tolerance threshold?

Casper vs Praos Casper protocol with its 33% fault tolerance is rather an economic finality type, than probabilistic one. It guarantees that at least 2/3 of validators sign some messages and the ...
  • 1,667

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