Questions tagged [ouroboros]

Cardano's provably secure proof-of-stake protocol.

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6 votes
1 answer
107 views

Will Ouroboros Crypsinous be included in Ouroboros Omega?

Last year at the 2021 Cardano Summit, IOHK provided a YouTube video that overviews the Ouroboros family of protocols developed since 2016, the consensus enhancements and security features they provide,...
0 votes
0 answers
51 views

How to calculate the cardano network throughput?

I've been searching about the Cardano's network throughput in TPS and read in some place that is about 1000, in other place that is 250. But when I try to actually calculate it using the average ...
4 votes
1 answer
706 views

Ouroboros – Which version is currently implemented?

I was reading this blog post From Classic to Hydra and I was wondering which version of Ouroboros is currently implemented in Cardano: Classic, BFT or Praos?
0 votes
1 answer
54 views

How does the cardano network handle network latency?

I read that when a node receives a block, the node verifies that the slot number is the current one. If the slot changes every second, what if a block is generated by some node A, but some other node ...
1 vote
1 answer
39 views

Specs for local-state queries

Does anyone know where I can find on-the-wire specs / cddl for the ledger-specific payloads of the local-state queries? I have the specs for the top-level state-machine messages of the polymorphic ...
0 votes
0 answers
14 views

Do we have any documents that help to understand Ouroboros Praos?

I'm trying to understand how the Cardano election process work by reading the paper https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/573.pdf. Nevertheless, there are many mathematic formulas in the paper, I really find ...
1 vote
1 answer
104 views

What are Leader VRF and Block VRF values on Pooltool?

During slot battles or height battles between stake pools, the realtime chain tip on Pooltool displays (B) and (L) for the pool that has a lower "Block" and "Leader" VRF value, ...
1 vote
1 answer
63 views

Different versions of Ouroboros consensus protocol

What's the difference between different versions of Ouroboros consensus protocol? I know there are so many discussions on the web, but most of them just repeat the few same sentences and does not ...
4 votes
1 answer
385 views

Can someone who is familiar with Ouroboros explain its fault tolerance threshold?

Ouroboros claims to be <50% Byzantine fault tolerant with regards to persistence. I was wondering why is it that some other PoS systems settle for 33% (e.g. Casper), when 50% is provably achievable?...
0 votes
1 answer
145 views

Validating transactions

Original question: When 51% or more of consensus participants validate any transaction for recording on-chain, against what evidence are they validating? Original Answer: Each transaction is broadcast,...
22 votes
1 answer
344 views

How secure is Ouroboros Proof of Stake compared to Bitcoin Proof of Work?

It is generally thought of that Proof of Work is more secure than competing consensus algorithms. What security guarantees does using a Bitcoin PoW provide, and how does Ouroboros Praos compare? Will ...
6 votes
3 answers
749 views

How does Ouroboros disincentivize bad behavior?

How does Ouroboros disincentivize bad behavior? For example, in ETH 2, poorly behaving nodes have their stake slashed. Does Ouroboros have a similar mechanism?
4 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are input endorsers and how do they make Cardano more scalable?

Charles Hoskinson talked about input endorsers in a recent livestream and said they could improve the throughput of the base ledger by a factor of 20 to 40. What are input endorsers and how do they ...
4 votes
2 answers
159 views

Is a block winning a height battle with a 43 second prop time a potential form of MEV?

Would someone please be so kind as to explain how a block with a 43 second prop time wins a height battle??? Block #: 6777986 Pool ID: 2cf87fadec7130c7e41910492073ae4dbe65ca462c1fdc3d2a56d015 ...
1 vote
2 answers
123 views

Why Ouroboros Chronos and Proof-of-History need synchronization of time?

Which problem is solved if the time is synchronized between nodes? I know of two protocols which implement time synchronization: Ouroboros Chronos and Proof-of-History, how do they differ?
1 vote
3 answers
109 views

Are there papers (e.g. game theorie based) on how Ouroboros encourages decentralization of ADA among its users?

In Ouroboros, the more ADA you have the bigger the chance to get elected to mine the next block and get the rewards. Apart from other parameters and up to the saturation level for a single poole this ...
2 votes
1 answer
99 views

What are the steps in producing a block in Cardano?

I would love a high-level overview suitable for a beginner that covers collecting transactions, proposing a block, propagating the block, and then finally verifying it.
0 votes
1 answer
90 views

Highly-available relay node (round robin & Ouroboros)

I'm thinking of adding multiple relay-node instances behind a load-balancer to avoid downtime during maintenance windows, updates, restarts, etc. From the outside world (public network), this would be ...
2 votes
1 answer
144 views

What does it mean that Ouroboros is formally verified?

I was talking with some friends about Cardano the other day and I brought up the fact that Ouroboros is formally verified. One of my friends asked me to explain what that means and why it's ...
2 votes
1 answer
46 views

Will the variables of the gas calculation formula be able to be dynamically adjusted by the protocol on Cardano?

My curiosity prompts me to ask you a question... We have seen with many L1 Blockchains a recurring problem: the transaction fees fatally get more and more expensive with the valuation of the native ...
5 votes
1 answer
392 views

Difference between Ouroboros' Proof of Stake and Solana's Proof of History

What are the key differences between Ouroboros' Proof of Stake and Solana's Proof of History in aspects such as security, decentralization, functionality, efficiency (such as number of transactions ...
3 votes
1 answer
56 views

Will Ouroborous work if a nontrivial portion of validators are on the moon?

Will Ouroborous work if a non trivial stake (say 5%) is delegated to validators on the moon? What about mars? How about one of the moons of Jupiter? If not, why not? If yes, how does the consensus ...
6 votes
1 answer
92 views

Is the Ouroboros Praos protocol proprietary?

The slots and epochs section of the Cardano Stake Pool Course states that the Ouroboros Praos protocol is proprietary. Is this correct and, if so, is there a reason why this central part of the ...