I'm extremely worried a wallet through cli can be corrupted as i'm using a virtual machine which often crashes and deletes to itself. In other crypto wallets you can insert a secret phrase or a key to open the address in other extension wallets. Is this possibly in cardano?
Seed phrases following the bip-39 standard do exist for Cardano. However, there is no way to generate a seed phrase from a signing key. Therefore, the private key generated with the cardano-cli cannot be imported into a wallet that uses the seed phase recovery method.
To quote the answer given here
Your best bet would likely be to generate a new set of wallets derived from mnemonic instead of a raw master seed (used in cardano-cli).
In other crypto wallets you can insert a secret phrase or a key to open the address in other extension wallets. Is this possibly in cardano?
Yes. It is possible.
As an aside: creating wallets from cardano-cli, you get
payment.skey . If you keep the keys safe from the malfunctioning VM, you can use them to recover the wallet from other machines.