I'd like to know where the mnemonic (if at all) is stored in the Daedalus directory. I am running on Ubuntu 20.04, and I'd like to extract the mnemonic from the filesystem. (Assuming I am not using a hardware wallet).

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Mnemonic is used to make it easier for us to create the root private key (for signing transactions). When you insert your mnemonic, behind the scene it's actually using the BIP39 mechanism to create the root private key. And this private key is the one that is actually being stored, not the mnemonic seed phrase itself. If you'd like, you can 'walk back' the private key into a mnemonic seed phrase, but it's quite tasking.

I don't really know much about the Daedalus wallet, but with a light wallet (Like Eternl, Nami, Yoroi, etc), the private key is stored encrypted with your wallet password.

References on how BIP39 and Key Derivation works in Cardano:

In newer Daedalus, there isn't any information regarding the location of the secret.key, only in older Daedalus.

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