I would love a high-level overview suitable for a beginner that covers collecting transactions, proposing a block, propagating the block, and then finally verifying it.
Here's a five-minute video by Andrew Westberg talking about just this.
In short, the steps are as follows:
- A signed transaction is submitted to the mempool of the local cardano-node.
- mempools are constantly being synced between the nodes' peers
- A stake pool makes a new block by taking all the transactions in their mempool and appending it to the tip of their chain. TX's included in this block are then cleared from their mempool.
- Other nodes see the stake pool has an extra block (and hence a longer chain), so they verify the block's legitimacy, and add it to their chain. TX's in the new propagating block are also cleared from everyone's mempool.
- Repeat until the network is synced.
Hope this helps!