This issue is one that'll plague projects trying to build on Cardano.

Let's consider Lecture 10 of the first iteration of the Plutus Pioneers Program (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dg36h9YPMz4&feature=youtu.be&ab_channel=LarsBr%C3%BCnjes), if I want to send a swap transaction, I have to consume the latest pool state (containing the token balances owned by the pool). Does it mean in any block there can be only one transaction per pool? If two or more users are trying to consume the latest UTXO, only one transaction will be successful and other users have to change their transactions to reference the new UTXO.

Here are some links where it's mentioned:- https://twitter.com/LarsBrunjes/status/1390331642103877633?s=19- General approach for allowing multiple smart contract transactions per block


In other discussion, Lars said a real implementation of something like this or the Oracle could use - instead of an NFT - its own currencySymbol, and then have multiple UTxOs which could be grabbed concurrently at one time.

Here there is talk of "read-only" inputs : https://github.com/Emurgo/Emurgo-Research/blob/master/smart-contracts/Unlocking%20The%20Potential%20Of%20The%20UTXO%20Model.md

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